By Scott Andrew Shane
In the course of my tenure at Cornell University's Entrepreneur In place of abode, i discovered Scott Shane's e-book to be a necessary source packed with facts and perception.
Read or Download Academic Entrepreneurship: University Spinoffs and Wealth Creation (New Horizons in Entrepreneurship Series,) PDF
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Additional resources for Academic Entrepreneurship: University Spinoffs and Wealth Creation (New Horizons in Entrepreneurship Series,)
However, much like the MIT case described above, most of the spinoff companies described in the studies by Wickstead (1985) and Dahlstrand (1999) did not formally license university technologies. Rather, either they were founded to exploit technologies without legal forms of intellectual property protection, or based on patents and copyrights assigned to the inventors of the technologies, not their institutions. However, this job creation is unevenly distributed across universities. MIT estimates that its roughly 100 spinoffs founded from 1980 to 1997 created 8721 jobs by 1997, whereas Columbia University’s 46 spinoff companies, none of which was founded before the mid1990s, have created only 300 jobs (Golub, 2003).
Previous research has offered several reasons for the greater profitability of spinoffs than licensing to established companies. First, as part of the payment for their intellectual property, universities can more easily take equity in spinoffs than they can in established company licensees; and equity ownership is superior to royalties on sales of products resulting from the invention as a way to profit from university technology. Royalties can only be earned if a licensee successfully commercializes a university invention; however, researchers have found that the commercialization of university inventions is highly uncertain, with only about 20 percent of university inventions being successfully commercialized (Shane and Katila, 2003).
The rise in inventions that resulted from federal funding of research during World War II led universities to become more deeply involved in the management of their patents and licensing (Mowery and Sampat, 2001b). One important change in the management of university technology commercialization in the post-World War II period was a significant increase in the number of universities with explicit policies to cover the disclosure and management of inventions by faculty, staff and students.
Academic Entrepreneurship: University Spinoffs and Wealth Creation (New Horizons in Entrepreneurship Series,) by Scott Andrew Shane