By I.M. Kolthoff
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Physik. , 10, 321 (1892). Walker: J. Chem. , Smith: Z. physik. , 26, 144, 193 (1898). Tower: Z. physik. 61, 696 (1892). , 18, 17 (1895). McCoy: J. Am. Chem. , SO, 688 (1908). Chandler: J. Am. Chem. , 30, 694 (1908). Enklaar: Chem. Weekblad, 8, 824 (1911). Dhatta and Dhar: J. Chem. , 107, 824 (1915). Thorns and Sabalitschka: Th. , 6%, 567, 1378 (1919). , 60, 1227 (1917). THE REACTION OF is ACIDS, BASES, small compared with c for in this case Ki 9 practical purposes, and equation is (46) AND SALTS + 21 equals c for simplified to c [H+] all (47) This expression always permits an approximate calculation of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution of an acid salt.
Noyes: J. Am. Chem. , SO, 349 (1909). ACID-BASE INDICATORS 22 the effect of increasing temperature on the dissociation conand bases may be disregarded, then the degree of will change only because the ion product of water, hydrolysis If stants of acids K Thus the ion product increases with increasing temperature. water at 100 is about one hundred times its value at room W) of temperature. It has been shown that the strong acid-weak base type pH may of a solution of a salt of the be calculated in the following manner: pH = %pKw - |pBOH At ordinary temperatures %pKw equals i log 7, c.
AMPHOTERIC SUBSTANCES 41 If a large enough excess of acid is present, the [A~] becomes so small as to be insignificant compared with the ampholyte cation concentration. In such a case, we may regard the ampholyte merely as a weak base, and can calculate the remainder of the neutralization curve on this basis. Similarly, when the excess of added alkali is sufficiently great the concentration of the cations [A+] very much less than [A"""], then the basic properties of the ampholyte may be disregarded and it may be thought of simply as a weak acid.
Acid Base indicators by I.M. Kolthoff