By Berdanier, Carolyn D
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Heat is released, and water and carbon dioxide are produced. The more active a person is, the more oxygen is needed for the oxidation of metabolic fuel by the muscle. Trained athletes are more efficient in their use of metabolic fuels than are nontrained, sedentary individuals. Training involves an increase in use of specific muscle groups as well as an increase in lung and heart action. Muscle contraction, which is usually supported by the oxidation of glucose (from blood glucose or glycogen breakdown) in the sedentary person, can use fatty acids as fuel after training.
Urea production likewise is energetically expensive. indb 20 7/2/08 5:38:12 AM Energy 21 large increases in both protein synthesis and ureagenesis represent an increase in the basal energy requirement and an increase in the protein requirement in the traumatized or severely ill individual. Unless this additional energy and protein are provided, weight loss will occur. Obesity Whereas with starvation, inadequate energy intake and trauma represent negative energy balance (more energy is being used than is being consumed), obesity represents that condition where more energy is consumed than is expended.
This means that fat is being oxidized because the oxidation of fatty acids results in a lower RQ than the oxidation of glucose. Fatty acid oxidation by working muscle will spare glucose and will decrease the rate of lactate production. The muscle does not store large amounts of lipid for use during work, but it can use fatty acids liberated from fat depots through the action of the catabolic hormones. Part of training is to increase muscle fatty acid oxidation while also increasing the glycogen–glucose reserve in the muscle.
Advanced nutrition by Berdanier, Carolyn D