By Rob Jenkins, C.K. Jain
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Additional resources for Advances in soil-borne plant diseases
For example, the availability of C, mineral N and P that can be assimilated may be enhanced significantly in fresh earthworm casts or fresh termite pellets when compared with the ingested soil. As a consequence, other groups of organisms such as litter transformers, micropredators, microorganisms and fine roots may become established in these domains. 'The importance of the functions performed in soils by macrofauna and the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a soil environment as a consequence of its activity make it a vital part of all ecosystems, including agro-ecosystems.
The macromixing activity of earthworms is of major importance to soils. It can be measured by the 28 Advances in Soil-borne Plant Diseases quantity of casts found on the soil surface. Earthworms can produce 40-250 tonnes of casts per hectare per year. Some can produce up to 2 500 tonnes of casts per hectare per year. Some beetles (especially those of the subfamily Scarabeidae) are coprophagous they are very efficient at incorporating and removing excrements that are on the soil surface. ris dilloni, a large African species, can bury a piece of dung in one night.
Advances in Soil-borne Plant Diseases 38 Earthworms generally exert beneficial effects on plant growth. However, negative or null effects may be induced in particular situations. g. Ponto scolex corethrurus) may inhibit production under particular situations. Once the earthworms are established, a dynamic cropping system - involving crop rotations with long-cycle crops or perennials with good organic matter additions - contributes to securing lasting benefits from earthworm activities. The following exercise, Exercise 5, increases awareness of the effects of earthworms in 'biotillage' - mixing and aerating soil through their burrowing activities.
Advances in soil-borne plant diseases by Rob Jenkins, C.K. Jain