By Benjamin F. Paley, Tomas E. Warfield
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Extra resources for Amino Acid Receptor Research
This effect of ascorbate on goldfish bipolar cells is mediated by activation of dopamine D1 receptors, an effect blocked by the antagonist SCH23390 and mimicked by dopamine at the same concentrations (Fan and Yazulla, 1999b). Ascorbate could also block the dark induced efflux of GABA in the goldfish retina (Yazulla, 1985). It was previously observed interactions between ascorbate and the glutamatergic system. For example, ascorbate is able to regulate the NMDA receptor through interaction with the redox-sensitive regulatory center(s) on NMDA receptor and inhibiting receptor activity.
By recording mini end-plate potentials (mEPSPs) in cultured hippocampal neurons derived from either wild type or embryos lacking SVCT-2, Slc23a2-\-, it was observed that Slc23a2-\- neurons present smaller amplitudes and frequency of mEPSPs when compared with wild type neurons. Moreover, comparing Slc23a2-\- and wild-type neuronal morphology, Slc23a2-\- neurons exhibit less primary neurite branches and smaller dendrite lengths. Accordingly, Slc23a2-\neurons alsopresent decreased expression of GluR1 AMPA receptor subunits than wild type, indicating the existence of less potential places of excitatory synaptic transmission in these mutants.
Different assemblies of subunits render these receptors with distinct functional properties. For example, AMPA receptors which lack GluR2 subunits are permeable to Ca++ ions, and additionally, a splicing edition in the M2 region of this subunit, switching a glutamine to an arginine, confers Ca++ permeability to assemblies containing GluR2 (Cull-Candy et al, 2006). In the retina, the role of AMPA and kainate receptors becomes evident at Off-bipolar cell synapses (Brandstätter and Hack, 2001), where L-Glu induces depolarization via these receptors.
Amino Acid Receptor Research by Benjamin F. Paley, Tomas E. Warfield