By Colotti J.

Examines the lifetime of the Polish-born scientist who, together with her husband Pierre, was once provided a 1903 Nobel Prize for locating radium.

This day, radar in a single shape or one other is probably going to show up all over: on the street, on the waterfront, in an underground motor-road. through a ways the widest use of radar is made by means of the army and scientists. In all of those fields millions upon hundreds of thousands of radar units are at paintings. a few of them are sufficiently small to be outfitted into spectacles, others weigh 1000s of plenty.

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Copper: 1 oz, electro-deposited 2. 503 FR4 dielectric loss exceeds copper loss at 1 GHz Notes: 1. Copper: 1 oz, electrodeposited, 10 mil width, 50 Ohms, strip-line 2. 025, height 28 mils 3. 004, height 22 mils 4. Loss units are dB/inch Revision 4 Copyright Telephonics 2002-2005 34 Conductor Loss DC Resistance R DC = ρ l l = ρ tw A l R DC = 0 . 6 Ω (0 . 0014 in )(0 . 010 in ) R DC = 0 . 3 Ω (0 . 0007 in )(0 . 005 in ) A t w Skin Depth δ = δ = δ = Revision 4 ρ π fµ 0 •Current density drops to 37% (1/e) •Ignore if t<2δ 0 .

005 in ) A t w Skin Depth δ = δ = δ = Revision 4 ρ π fµ 0 •Current density drops to 37% (1/e) •Ignore if t<2δ 0 . 0172 µ Ω m = 660 nm = 0 . 03 mils  −7 Ω s  π (10 GHz ) 4π x10  m   0 . 0172 µ Ω m = 21 µ m = 0 . 8 Gbps ♦ 36” trace length 5 FR4 RO4350 Er 4 3 100 1000 2000 10000 Frequency in MHZ Revision 4 Copyright Telephonics 2002-2005 40 Mitigation of Dispersion ♦ More Stable Dielectric - Option for new designs ♦ Pre-Emphasis Filter - Option for new designs or design upgrade ♦ Equalizer - Option for new designs or design upgrade - Maxim MAX3784 (40” length, 6 mil, FR4, 5 Gbps) Revision 4 Copyright Telephonics 2002-2005 41 Coupling ♦ Traces run in close proximity will couple ♦ Coupling is determined by geometry - trace separation, distance to ground(s) & parallel length - peaks at λ/4 and below λ/4 slope is 20 dB/decade 30 L 15 11 Revision 4 30 11 Notes: 1.

39” at 1 GHz 3. 054” 23 dB Notes: 1. Copper: 1 oz, electrodeposited 2. 50, height: 30 mils 3. 2 pF/in Inductance 42 x 42 60 x 60 (≈ 0603) (≈ 0805) Notes: 1. Copper: 1 oz, electrodeposited, strip-line. 2. 025, height 10 mils. 45 Notes: 1. R in mΩ , L in nH, C in pF 2. Dimensions are in mils. 3. Planes are evenly spaced. 4.

### Analog,RF and EMC considerations in printed wiring board design by Colotti J.

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