By E. Gwinner (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Gwinner (eds.)
E. GWINNER! The phenomenon of poultry migration with its huge scale dimensions has attracted the eye of naturalists for hundreds of years. around the globe billions of birds depart their breeding grounds each autumn emigrate to parts with seasonally extra want capable stipulations. lots of those migrants commute in basic terms over a number of hundred kilo meters yet others conceal distances reminiscent of the circumference of the earth. between those long-distance migrants are a number of billion birds that invade Africa each autumn from their West and principal Palaearctic breeding components. within the Americas and in Asia the scope of poultry migration is of an identical significance. simply as amazing because the numbers of birds are their achievements. they must deal with the big lively expenditures of long-distance flying. relatively whereas crossing oceans and deserts that don't enable replenishment of depleted fats reserves. they need to thoroughly time the onset and finish of migrations. either on a regular and annual foundation. and at last. they must orient their migratory hobbies in house to arrive their species- or population-specific wintering and breeding grounds, without reference to the variable weather conditions alongside their migratory routes.
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Extra resources for Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology
Ornis Fenn 51: 129-145 Bergman G (1976) Vogelzugstudien und Migrationsprobleme in Finnland. Ornis Fenn 53: 107-114 Bergman G (1977) Finnish radar investigations on migration of waterfowl between the Baltic and the White Sea. 24 Rassegna Internazionale Elettronica Nucleare ed Aerospaziale. Rome Bergman G. Donner KO (1964) An analysis of the spring migration of the common scoler and the long-tailed duck in southern Finland. Acta Zool Fenn 105:1-59 Bird Migration in the Arctic: A Review 37 Bianchi V (1983) On the passage of waterfowl across the White Sea.
Germain p, Tull CE, Davis T (1975) Atlas of eastern Canadian seabirds. Can Wildl Servo Ottawa. 220 pp Butler R W, Kaiser GW. Smith GEJ (1987) Migration chronology. length of stay, sex ratio, and weight of western sandpipers. (Calidris mallri) on the south coast of British Columbia. J Field Omithol 58:103-111 Cade TJ (1955) Records of the black brant in the Yukon Basin and the question ofa spring migration route. J Wildl Manage 19:321-324 Cooke WW (1915) Bird migration in the Mackenzie Valley. Ibis 32:442-459 Cramp S (1985) Handbook of the birds of Europe and Middle East and North Africa.
Cranes. and a few passerines (Snow 1953; Salomonsen 1967b; Thompson 1973; Wilson 1981; Kessel 1984; Owen and Gullestad 1984; Pienkowski and Evans 1984; Meltofte 1985; Mercier 1985: Davidson et a!. 1986; Piersma 1987). , Limnodromus scolopaceus, Calidris mauri, Aphriza virgata, Heteroscelus incanus, A renaria melanocephala). tant in assisting migrations across ice sheets. Alerstam et al. (1986) discussed the importance of tailwinds in the long-distance migrations of birds over the Greenland inland ice, and Owen and Gullestad (1984) noted that tailwinds assist Svalbard barnacle geese in their 2400 km migration from Bj0rn0ya to Britain; other examples oflong-distance migration assisted by tailwinds are discussed below.
Bird Migration: Physiology and Ecophysiology by E. Gwinner (auth.), Professor Dr. Eberhard Gwinner (eds.)