New PDF release: Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee)

By Leonard Warren

ISBN-10: 0521447437

ISBN-13: 9780521447430

Certain carbohydrates are a massive and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma study. in line with a sequence of invited lectures, this ebook makes a speciality of the particular position that certain carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's distinct occupation in biochemical study. another subject matters lined are the houses of membrane glycoproteins, enthusiastic about the resistance of cells to medicines, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal position within the author's reports. The e-book chronicles just a few of the large advances which were made in biochemistry during the last few a long time.

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Sure carbohydrates are a major and interesting subject in biochemical and melanoma examine. in accordance with a sequence of invited lectures, this e-book makes a speciality of the particular position that certain carbohydrates play in nature and replicate the author's unique occupation in biochemical study. another issues coated are the homes of membrane glycoproteins, excited about the resistance of cells to medications, and the metabolism of sugars and sialic acids, either one of which shape a pivotal position within the author's reports.

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Sample text

In proteoglycans, sugar groups are linked to the polypeptide via a serine-xylose bonding, while in collagens the linking group is hydroxylysine-galactose. The initiation of mucin biosynthesis (Schacter and Roseman, 1980) is carried out by a membrane-bound enzyme that transfers GalNAc from UDP-GalNAc to the hydroxyl groups of serine or threonine in a polypeptide (Scheme 13). / UDPGalNAc + serine R / — • GalNAc-serine R + UDP Biosynthesis of O-linked oligosaccharides OVINE GalNAc (threonine) CMP-SA O PORCINE O — Serine — — Serine — — Serine — SA |

Metabolic control of hexosamines and sialic acids We have discussed the pathways by which hexosamines and sialic acids are derived from glycolytic intermediates in preparation for their incorporation into glycolipids and the glycoconjugates. It has taken almost half a century to delineate these pathways. However, the living cell can not only carry out these reactions, it also can, in sensitive ways, regulate the rates at which intermediates are produced, destroyed or incorporated into larger molecules.

A critical competition exists between GlcNAc transferase III and GlcNAc transferases IV and V for bi-antennary acceptor. Addition of galactose in the trans-Golgi Asparagine N-glycosylation ENZYME 47 LINKAGE FORMED GlcNAc transferase V GlcNAc ^1-6 \ GlcNAc transferase IV GlcNAc/? l-2 GlcNAc transferase III GlcNAc/? l-4 GlcNAcR , Scheme 11. Specificity of the GlcNAc transferases. R, GlcNAcASN. inhibits the activity of GlcNAc transferases III, IV and V. These are located in the median-Golgi. Therefore, the sequence of addition of sugars can be very important in the determination of the final composition and structure of carbohydrate groups (Schacter, 1991).

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Bound Carbohydrates in Nature (Lezioni Lincee) by Leonard Warren


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