By Barbara Palmer
Why has the mixing of ladies into Congress been so sluggish? Is there a "political glass ceiling" for girls? even though girls use a similar strategic calculations as males to come to a decision whilst to run, the choice relating to the place to run is anything else. whereas redistricting has more and more secure incumbents, it additionally has the unintentional final result of shaping the possibilities for woman applicants. The political geography and socio-economic profile of districts that decide on ladies range considerably from districts that go with males. With info on over 10,000 elections and 30,000 applicants from 1916 to the current, Palmer and Simon discover how process and the facility of incumbency have an effect on women’s judgements to run for workplace. Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling is the main accomplished research of ladies in congressional elections to be had. the second one variation is absolutely up-to-date to mirror the pivotal 2006 mid-term elections, together with Nancy Pelosi’s upward push to Speaker of the home, Hillary Clinton’s bid for the presidency, and a checklist variety of ladies serving as committee chairs. also, the authors have created an internet site, stumbled on at politicsandwomen.com, to spotlight key positive aspects of the ebook and supply updates through the election cycle.
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Extra info for Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections - Second edition
This particular election was unusual in Alabama politics because there were three statewide elections. In addition to Allen’s seat, there was an open race for governor since Governor Wallace was term-limited, and the other Senate seat was open after the retirement of Senator John Sparkman. In Allen’s Democratic primary race, she was defeated in a runoff election by Donald Stewart, who was originally among the candidates seeking nomination for the seat vacated by Sparkman. In June 1978, Stewart switched races rather than run against Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Howell Heﬂin, ﬁnished second to Allen in the initial primary, won the runoff in what was called a “stunning upset,” and defeated Republican James Martin to win the seat; Bill Peterson, “Alabama Senate ‘Sleeper’ Catches Political Experts Dozing,” Washington Post, October 3, 1978, A2.
33 28 • Rise and Persistence of the Glass Ceiling The following election cycle, 1994, stood in sharp contrast. 39 This stagnancy, however, masked several cross-cutting trends. The number of women running in primaries dropped, but the number of women winning primaries increased; in other words, women were more likely to win their primaries in 1994 than they were in 1992. Eleven new women were elected to the House, a higher number than usual, but eight female incumbents were defeated, six of whom had just been elected in 1992.
44 Foerstel, 1999, 172. See also Marjorie Margolies-Mezvinsky, A Woman’s Place: The Freshmen Women Who Changed the Face of Congress (New York: Crown, 1994). 45 Witt, Paget, and Matthews, 1995, 298. 46 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 50–51. 47 Foerstel and Foerstel, 1996, 52. ”49 Although the number of women running in primary elections took a dive in 1998, the next several election cycles saw relatively steady growth in the number of women candidates. In 2004, a record number of women, 137, won their primaries, and all ﬁfty-seven of the female incumbents who ran for reelection won.
Breaking the Political Glass Ceiling: Women and Congressional Elections - Second edition by Barbara Palmer