By Chin-Li Wang, Nan E. Johnson, Ching-Li Wang
Publication by way of Wang, Chin-Li
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Additional info for Changing Rural Social Systems Adaptation and Survival: Adaptation and Survival
Consequently, women appeared to be more systematically and structurally disadvantaged than men in the rural labor markets of Kentucky. This may have revealed just the tip of the iceberg of gender discrimination in a rural economy, since the data were restricted to those lucky enough to be employed full-time. The rates of, and earnings from, full-time labor force participation underestimate economic hardship. For example, these rates ignore Page 6 subemployed people, who have no paying jobs but do not seek work due to their belief that none exists.
As tapped by occupational prestige, time commitment required by the job in terms of hours worked Page 8 per week, and weeks of employment in the past year). Importantly, this study updated Tigges and Tootle's (1990) analysis of 1980 Census data by reaffirming the employment disadvantages of white males in nonmetro environments, and extended earlier analyses by showing that most (but not all) of the disadvantages came from locational inequality in the returns to human capital. Yet the exclusive focus on whites limited the generalizability of this study.
In other words, the system of economic stratification in the nonmetro South polarized blacks into "haves" and "have nots" according to how they fared in relation to whites, and the "haves'' got an edge. This finding cannot refute an implication of Hypothesis 3: lower-status African Americans follow the leadership of white exemplars. Also, it is consistent with the notion that bringing in more complex technologies of production extends the social stratification ladder in areas heavily dependent on agriculture (Loomis and Beegle 1957), but shows that the extension can mcan new rungs added to both ends of the ladder, especially for the one climbed by blacks.
Changing Rural Social Systems Adaptation and Survival: Adaptation and Survival by Chin-Li Wang, Nan E. Johnson, Ching-Li Wang