By Mark Moberg
Moberg (anthropology, U. of South Alabama) attracts on surveys from 1971 and 1986, and his personal ethnographic study to supply a unprecedented longitudinal learn of village peasants getting into the worldwide marketplace. Emphasizes the peasants' ideas, and the way new monetary components have altered the social constitution.
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Extra resources for Citrus, strategy, and class: the politics of development in Southern Belize
I also owe my gratitude to Albert Castillo, Mavis Castillo, and members of the Sandy Beach Women's Cooperative, who have looked after my housing and food needs over successive visits to Hopkins. Finally, for his friendship and gentle sense of humor, I thank the former alcalde of Hopkins, Victor Lewis, who has become, in local parlance, a "father" to me. The idiom of kinship here is particularly appropriate, since many residents have become like family as they extended their hospitality during my visits to the villages.
Steins (1984) comparison of agricultural wage rates in Peru suggests the extent to which household production subsidizes capital accumulation in this manner. In areas of the highlands adjacent to smallholder farming, daily wages in commercial agriculture were found to be one-third to one-half the levels paid to full-time workers employed in areas remote from peasant farming (Stein 1984: 293). Proletarianization in rural areas of the Third World thus remains an incomplete process, as many wage workers retain some involvement in household agricultural or craft production.
In the former case, households become capitalist in character (producing commodities by employing wage labor), while in the latter, the members of formerly independent peasant households become part of a growing rural proletariat (Lenin 1964 : 177). Rapid social differentiation has often been attributed to the introduction of agricultural innovations to formerly subsistence-oriented rural communities (DeWalt 1979; Cancian 1987). Since the advent of the Green Revolution in southern Asia, where new agricultural technologies induced huge disparities of wealth and landownership (Gough 1978; Griffin 1975), the anthropological literature has grown replete with examples of "development" processes that actually lowered living Page 9 standards for most rural inhabitants.
Citrus, strategy, and class: the politics of development in Southern Belize by Mark Moberg