By Pascal Hitzler
Exploring primary study questions, Conceptual constructions in Practice takes you thru the elemental but nontrivial activity of building conceptual kin because the starting place for learn in wisdom illustration and information mining. It comprises contributions from top researchers in either the conceptual graph and formal notion research (FCA) communities.
This available, self-contained ebook starts via delivering the formal heritage in FCA and conceptual graphs. It then describes a number of software program instruments for research and computation, together with the ToscanaJ suite. Written through the unique visionaries of the sector, the following part discusses the heritage and destiny instructions of conceptual buildings. the ultimate chapters discover popular program parts in desktop technological know-how, together with textual content research, internet semantics, and clever systems.
An unheard of, cutting-edge evaluate from innovators within the box, this quantity discusses how FCA and conceptual graphs can be utilized in lots of desktop technology parts. It serves as a benchmark of study on conceptual constructions, inspiring additional exploration during this self-discipline.
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Extra resources for Conceptual Structures in Practice
Short Introduction to Conceptual Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conceptual Graphs from a Formal Point of View . . . . . . . . . . . The General Approach for Formal Logic with CGs . . . . . . . . . . Different Forms of Conceptual Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 18 23 28 34 43 Introduction This chapter aims to give an introduction into the formal theory of conceptual graphs (abbreviated by CGs), with an emphasis on how CGs can be understood as a diagrammatic approach to formal logic.
The definition of Φ can be found in [Sowa, 1984], and we find various comments and examples among the chapters of Sowa. The Φ-operator is useful for making the structural differences between CGs and the symbolic elaborations of FOL explicit, and it serves as a semantics for CGs as well. (F ARM ER(x) ∧ DON KEY (y) ∧ owns(x, y) ∧ ¬beat(x, y)). ((F ARM ER(x) ∧ DON KEY (y) ∧ owns(x, y)) → beat(x, y)). 5 Reasoning with Conceptual Graphs When he developed the system of CGs, Sowa did not only adopt the iconicity and many syntactical and semantical elements of existential graphs.
PERSON: Tom believe PROPOSITION: PERSON: Mary SITUATION: :* marry want SAILOR: * Besides the outermost context, this graph contains two further contexts, namely, the concept boxes of type PROPOSITION and SITUATION (which are common types of contexts). The graph can be read as follows: The person Tom believes a proposition, which is described by a graph itself. The proposition states that the person Mary wants a situation, which again is described by a graph. In this situation we have a concept box ⊤ : ∗ , which is connected with a coreference link to the concept box PERSON:Mary in 1 The blank graph corresponds to the empty sheet of assertion in Peirce’s existential graphs.
Conceptual Structures in Practice by Pascal Hitzler