By Xing Hang
The Zheng kin of retailers and militarists emerged from the tumultuous 17th century amid a critical monetary melancholy, a harrowing dynastic transition from the ethnic chinese language Ming to the Manchu Qing, and the 1st wave of eu growth into East Asia. below 4 generations of leaders over six many years, the Zheng had come to dominate exchange around the China Seas. Their usual annual gains matched, and now and then handed, these in their fiercest opponents: the Dutch East India corporation. even supposing nominally dependable to the Ming in its doomed fight opposed to the Manchus, the Zheng ultimately solid an self reliant territorial country in keeping with Taiwan with the capability to surround the family's whole monetary sphere of impression. in the course of the tale of the Zheng, Xing hold presents a clean viewpoint at the monetary divergence of early smooth China from western Europe, its twenty-first-century resurgence, and the that means of a chinese language identification outdoors China.
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Extra resources for Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620-1720
Taiwan, however, only served as the initial step in a broader vision of a maritime realm encompassing the family’s entire sphere of inﬂuence in maritime East Asia. Finally, the Zheng tried, throughout their existence, to justify their maritime orientation according to continental modes of legitimacy. To this effect, the organization alternated, according to the geopolitical situation, between the political models of an autonomous feudatory of a restored Ming, a Korean-style Qing vassal, and an independent maritime kingdom.
However, they differed in their approach. The kind but gullible head of the English factory at Hirado, Richard Cocks (1566–1624), cultivated a friendship with Li Dan, hoping to use his connections to the Fujian authorities to persuade them to open up trade. 47 The Dutch, on the other hand, opted to seize either Manila or Macao by force. 48 In 1622, after suffering one such defeat outside Macao, a Dutch ﬂeet once again ended up in Penghu. This time, the commander, Cornelis Reijersen (d. 1625), took on a more assertive stance than his predecessor.
It was primarily inhabited at the time by mutually hostile Malayo-Polynesian tribal confederations. ”37 Although just 180 kilometers east of the narrow Taiwan Strait from the crowded Fujian coast, Taiwan surprisingly lacked any large-scale Chinese settlement before the seventeenth century other than some makeshift Minnanese ﬁshing villages off the western shore. 38 Taiwan naturally became a haven for pirate bands ﬂeeing the Ming naval onslaught. After withdrawing from the Guangdong coast in the 1570s, Lin Daoqian and Lin Feng, partners and competitors in predation, continued their raids from bases at Wankan, an aboriginal settlement near present-day Jiayi, and the narrow sandbar of Tayouan farther south, outside of Tainan.
Conflict and Commerce in Maritime East Asia: The Zheng Family and the Shaping of the Modern World, c.1620-1720 by Xing Hang