By James H. Fetzer (Editor)
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Additional resources for Consciousness Evolving
2. We could decide to accept the theory that has the fewest parameters, but it is not clear that God used Occam’s Razor in designing the universe. The Blind Watchmaker certainly seems to have been proXigate in designing the biosphere, rarely designing the “optimal” system; which means that evolution leaves a lot of nonfunctional loose ends. It is not clear that one must duplicate every last one of them in reverse-engineering the mind. 3. Language, after all, has evolved to make the explicit symbolic mode (T2) dominate the implicit sensorimotor one (T3) in our species (Cangelosi & Harnad 2002).
These are metaphysical questions. A third question is: Is it logically, metaphysically, or nomically necessary that evolution produce p ? This is a historical question. Whatever one thinks the answer to the Wrst two metaphysical questions is, the answer to questions of the third sort is: no. It is a consequence of taking seriously the idea that consciousness is a natural phenomenon that we must treat it like any other naturally occurring trait of a living organism. The presumption is that those traits that are currently adaptive were formed by adaptation; the burden of proof is on the objector to 29 30 Thomas Polger and Owen Flanagan show otherwise.
P. 204–220. Harnad, S. 1995b. Grounding Symbolic Capacity in Robotic Capacity. In: Steels, L. and R. ) The ArtiWcial Life Route to ArtiWcial Intelligence: Building Embodied Situated Agents. New Haven: Lawrence Erlbaum. Pp. 277–286. Harnad, S. 1995c. “Why and How We Are Not Zombies”. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1: 164–167. Harnad, S. 1996. The Origin of Words: A Psychophysical Hypothesis In Velichkovsky B & Rumbaugh, D. ) Communicating Meaning: Evolution and Development of Language. NJ: Erlbaum: pp 27–44.
Consciousness Evolving by James H. Fetzer (Editor)