By Pippa Norris
This ebook compares the results of electoral ideas and cultural modernization for plenty of dimensions of political representations and balloting habit. It comprises styles of celebration pageant, the power of social cleavages and occasion loyalties, degrees of turnout, the gender and ethnic variety of parliaments, and the provisions of constituency carrier. The learn covers elections held from 1996 to 2002 in more moderen in addition to proven democracies that diversity from the united states, Australia, and Switzerland to Peru, Taiwan and Ukraine.
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Extra resources for Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior
This account is, therefore, worth investigating because it is not only theoretically important in the literature but also policy-relevant to real-world problems. Rational-choice institutionalism generates certain important propositions, which I test systematically in subsequent chapters. In particular, if the assumptions are correct, and formal electoral rules do indeed shape the behavior of politicians, parties, and citizens, then, all other things being equal, systematic cross-national contrasts in voting behavior and in political representation should be evident under different electoral rules.
Alternatively, if processes of societal modernization have shaped the political culture of nations, then, all other things being equal, this should be evident by contrasts in voting behavior and political representation among societies at different levels of human development, in particular between industrial and postindustrial societies. To build upon this approach, in subsequent chapters I explore to what extent electoral systems and societal modernization affect party competition (Chapter 4), the strength of social cleavages and partisan alignments (Chapters 5 and 6), and patterns of voting turnout (Chapter 7).
Aggregate election results, such as patterns of turnout or the proportion of women in ofﬁce, also can be compared in countries such as France that have altered their electoral systems back and forth between proportional and majoritarian formulae. The introduction of statutory gender quotas in the selection of parliamentary candidates provides one such “natural experiment,” as discussed in Chapter 8. Still, many factors vary over successive elections in these countries beyond changes in the electoral law, including the pattern of party competition, the campaign efforts at voter mobilization, the popularity of the government, the party in government, and the personality of particular party leaders.
Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior by Pippa Norris