New PDF release: Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in

By Sarah Birch (auth.)

ISBN-10: 0333946308

ISBN-13: 9780333946305

ISBN-10: 1349431389

ISBN-13: 9781349431380

ISBN-10: 1403938768

ISBN-13: 9781403938763

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In most cases the only political organizations that managed to build mass support bases in the early postcommunist years were the former communist parties, which could rely not only on a solid core of dues-paying rank-and-file members, but also on considerable organizational resources, equipment, and experienced personnel. The disadvantaged position of the new parties explains in part why many of the post-communist states, especially those of Central Europe, have opted for the public financing of political parties.

1 31 (Continued) Country Size of chamber Number of districts (lower + upper tiers) Number Proporof upper- tionPR tier seats seats (%) SinglePreferparty ences threshold inPR (first tier list PR seats)" voting? Russia 1993 Russia 1995 Russia 1999 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 225 225 SO SO SO 5 5 5 No No No Slovakia 1990 Slovakia 1992 Slovakia 1994 Slovakia 1998 Slovakia 2002 Slovenia 1992 150 150 150 150 150 90 4 4 4 Variable Variable Variable None None Variable 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 5" 5" 5" 5" None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Slovenia 1996 90 100 None Yes Slovenia 2000 90 100 4 Yes Ukraine 1994 Ukraine 1998 Ukraine 2002 450 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 None 225 225 SO SO 4 4 No No Yugoslavia 2000 138 27 0 100 5 (districtlevel) No 8+1 (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 0 Success requirement in singlemember seats Plurality Plurality Plurality Abs.

Ukraine Ukraine retained its Soviet-era single-member absolute majority electoral system with few changes through its first post-independence elections in 1994. Prior to the 1998 elections it adopted a system similar in most respects to that of Russia, with 225 seats filled in single-member districts by plurality, and the remaining 225 filled through a nationwide list. The main difference between the Russian and the Ukrainian systems was that the threshold in the latter was set at 4 per cent rather than 5 per cent.

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Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe by Sarah Birch (auth.)

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