By Sarah Birch (auth.)
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Additional resources for Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe
In most cases the only political organizations that managed to build mass support bases in the early postcommunist years were the former communist parties, which could rely not only on a solid core of dues-paying rank-and-file members, but also on considerable organizational resources, equipment, and experienced personnel. The disadvantaged position of the new parties explains in part why many of the post-communist states, especially those of Central Europe, have opted for the public financing of political parties.
1 31 (Continued) Country Size of chamber Number of districts (lower + upper tiers) Number Proporof upper- tionPR tier seats seats (%) SinglePreferparty ences threshold inPR (first tier list PR seats)" voting? Russia 1993 Russia 1995 Russia 1999 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 + 1 225 225 225 SO SO SO 5 5 5 No No No Slovakia 1990 Slovakia 1992 Slovakia 1994 Slovakia 1998 Slovakia 2002 Slovenia 1992 150 150 150 150 150 90 4 4 4 Variable Variable Variable None None Variable 100 100 100 100 100 100 3 5" 5" 5" 5" None Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Slovenia 1996 90 100 None Yes Slovenia 2000 90 100 4 Yes Ukraine 1994 Ukraine 1998 Ukraine 2002 450 450 450 450 225 + 1 225 + 1 None 225 225 SO SO 4 4 No No Yugoslavia 2000 138 27 0 100 5 (districtlevel) No 8+1 (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 8+1 Variable (+2 minority seats) 0 Success requirement in singlemember seats Plurality Plurality Plurality Abs.
Ukraine Ukraine retained its Soviet-era single-member absolute majority electoral system with few changes through its first post-independence elections in 1994. Prior to the 1998 elections it adopted a system similar in most respects to that of Russia, with 225 seats filled in single-member districts by plurality, and the remaining 225 filled through a nationwide list. The main difference between the Russian and the Ukrainian systems was that the threshold in the latter was set at 4 per cent rather than 5 per cent.
Electoral Systems and Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe by Sarah Birch (auth.)