By Jürgen Rettinger, Silvia Schwarz, Wolfgang Schwarz
This textbook offers a extensive evaluate of issues pertaining to mobile electrophysiology – masking themes starting from bioelectric phenomena famous way back to historical Egypt to well known subject matters at the hazards of electrosmog. with out sacrificing medical precision, this transparent and concise paintings provides at the one hand different equipment and purposes, nevertheless the biophysical basics of ion-channel and provider proteins. a variety of and punctiliously chosen illustrations and diagrams complement the textual content, whereas questions on the finish of every bankruptcy permit readers to check their realizing. every one part additionally comprises references to correct unique literature for extra interpreting. The e-book bargains a worthy source for college kids of biology, chemistry and physics with a different curiosity in biophysics.
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Extra info for Electrophysiology : Basics, Modern Approaches and Applications
1 (The One-Electrode Voltage Clamp)). 6. However, all of these variants have in common that the voltage-clamped membrane, either from a whole cell or from a membrane patch, has a resistance in the range of GΩ. 5 and 50 MΩ, voltage control can be achieved with only one electrode that measures potential and passes current simultaneously. 24 gives a schematic representation of the minimum electronic circuit. One can derive the circuit for the patch-clamp method from that of the two-electrode method simply by omitting the current electrode and connecting the output of the negativefeedback op-amp back to the "voltage-electrode" via a resistor (feedback resistor).
For working with intact cells, microelectrodes (first introduced by Ling and Gerard 1949) must be used. 13). This allows penetration of the cell membrane without much harm to the cell. The electrical contact between cytoplasm and the electronics is achieved by filling the capillaries with an electrolyte solution and via the Ag/AgCl connection. As electrolyte solution a highly concentrated (3 M) KCl solution is often used. This brings the resistances of such pipettes down to the MΩ range, and makes liquid-junction potentials occurring at the tip of the electrode (due to the similar mobility of potassium and chloride ions) nearly independent of changes in the composition of the outer solution.
For the completely excited cell, the potential difference will again be zero; now the cell surface is continuously negative. With this kind of extracellular recording, we cannot distinguish whether the entire cell is at rest or completely excited. This statement is also true for the heart when recording an ECG; only time- and space-dependent changes can be detected. 2 • Example (ECG) .. 5a,b a The symbolized heart as a dipole in the centre of an electrolyte container. The magnitude of dipole moment in direction of detection (forming an angle α with the dipole) is given by the projection on direction of detection p cosα (b) Indifferent electrode 0 -1 -2 +1 -3 -4 +4 +3 -2 p cos α +2 +2 b α p +1 -1 0 A B Recording electrodes a first excited, repolarization of the membrane potential will occur first.
Electrophysiology : Basics, Modern Approaches and Applications by Jürgen Rettinger, Silvia Schwarz, Wolfgang Schwarz