By John Clifford Green
First released in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an Informa company.
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Extra resources for Financing the 1996 Election
2. Spending on congressional campaigns ($838 million), including money contributed directly to candidates by party and nonparty political committees in prenomination, general election, and special election campaigns (Federal Election Commission 1997c). Also included are independent expenditures, communication costs, and related issue advocacy, the latter amounting to $73 million. 3. Spending by national political party committees ($354 million), including administration, fund-raising, and other costs, but excluding coordinated expenditures on behalf of presidential candidates and direct contributions to congressional candidates that are already counted in the first two categories (Federal Election Commission 1997b).
It could be that a more nuanced analysis of congressional candidates would reveal more differences among the congressional donors, especially if primary candidates were identified. After all, primary battles between pro-life and pro-choice Republicans, or "new" and "old" Democrats, are more like presidential primaries. Given the power of incumbency, such battles are rare compared to general election contests, which pit one party's candidates against another. The great bulk of the congressional donors were involved in such general election contests in 1996an election where the partisan control of Congress hung in the balance.
Scholars have found that political activists of all sorts, including donors, are motivated by three kinds of incentives (Wilson 1995). Contributors with purposive motives seek the adoption of their preferred policies in one or more areas, while those with material motives seek tangible benefits that will increase their financial well-being. Donors with solidary motives enjoy social interaction with politicians and other contributors. 4). A much smaller number of donors admit to being motivated by material incentives, such as giving for "business/employment reasons" or because it is "expected" as part of their job.
Financing the 1996 Election by John Clifford Green