By William Wallace (auth.)
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A simple example of the unintended and unanticipated response would be the impact of Russian satellite development on the American educational system; of responses taking an unintended direction, hostile or nationalist reactions to a foreign aid programme. The emulative process 'is a special form of the reactive type', when the response is not only triggered off by a foreign action 56 but takes essentially the same form as the foreign action. This is known to others as the 'demonstration' effect, a widely observed phenomenon in the modern world, in which student demonstrators or protesting farmers imitate their fellows in other countries, in which waves of hijackings, kidnappings, even self-immolation, sweep across much of the world, or in which issues such as law and order are raised in one country and rapidly taken up elsewhere.
But in a wider sense mass public opinion acts as a strong negative constraint on the making offoreign policy. 135 Particularly in democratic states, it provides a strong force for continuity in foreign policy, in the support which the public gives for traditional goals or 44 established interests,136 and in the potential for rapid increases in public involvement in opposition to new policy departures the development of which the public has not followed and the reasons for which the public does not understand.
Foreign policy, very clearly, was a matter for the executive branch of government. Yet even before 1914 the international and domestic conditions which supported this aristocratic insulation of foreign policy from domestic politics had been considerably undermined. Since then the transformation of the environment of foreign policy by political, economic, technological and social developments has entirely altered the policy-makers' situation. 39 The changes in the international environment have been discussed above.
Foreign Policy and the Political Process by William Wallace (auth.)