Fundamental Anatomy - download pdf or read online

By W. Hartwig

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Hardy. 4 Atrial formation. A septum grows down the middle of the atrium to separate it into right and left atria. This is an interesting and complicated process (A), because the first septum is incomplete, and the second septum is also incomplete (but in a different place). This results in a â two-flapâ design that allows some blood to move from the right atrium to the left atrium (B, red arrow). Because the fetal heart is not transpiring oxygen into the pulmonary circulation, this is tolerated until birth.

Therefore, it is logical to expect that the nerves reaching the involuntary muscles of the body will be different than the nerves reaching the voluntary muscles. The nerves of involuntary contraction constitute the autonomic nervous system. Other things that seem to be â actionsâ actually do not require the nervous system. Digestion, for example, can be thought of as the process of absorbing what you put into contact with the gut tube, or the endodermal membrane. The movement of the food matter through the tube is a result of involuntary contraction of the smooth muscles that overcoat the gut tube, but the actual absorption of molecules and compounds across the endoderm layer is a chemical process.

27). This area congeals into parallel endocardial tubes on either side of the midline, and as you move backward toward the tail, each tube splits into a lateral endocardial tube and a dorsal aorta. 27 Superior view of the embryonic disc showing the cardiogenic area. Mesoderm that migrates cranially in the embryonic disc differentiates into the primordial cells of the heart. The initial cardiogenic area pulses fluid through a primitive tubing design that, ultimately, will form distinct inflow (endocardial tube) and outflow (aorta) paths from the contractile cells of the cardiogenic area.

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Fundamental Anatomy by W. Hartwig


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