New PDF release: Human anatomy and physiology : laboratory textbook

By Robert Bauman; Steve Dutton; Michelle Bauman

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Example text

In the human body, essentially all carbohydrates are converted into glucose by the digestive tract and liver before they reach the other cells of the body. Similarly, proteins are converted into amino acids and fats into fatty acids. Figure 2-14 shows oxygen and the foodstuffs—glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids—all entering the cell. Inside the cell, the foodstuffs react chemically with oxygen, under the influence of enzymes that control the reactions and channel the energy released in the proper direction.

Most cells that exhibit ameboid locomotion move toward the source of a chemotactic substance—that is, from an area of lower concentration toward an area of higher concentration—which is called positive chemotaxis. Some cells move away from the source, which is called negative chemotaxis. But how does chemotaxis control the direction of ameboid locomotion? Although the answer is not certain, it is known that the side of the cell most exposed to the chemotactic substance develops membrane changes that cause pseudopodial protrusion.

If not, the brain corrects the feed-forward signals that it sends to the muscles the next time the movement is required. Then, if still further correction is necessary, this will be done again for subsequent movements. This is called adaptive control. Adaptive control, in a sense, is delayed negative feedback. Thus, one can see how complex the feedback control systems of the body can be. A person’s life depends on all of them. Therefore, a major share of this text is devoted to discussing these life-giving mechanisms.

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Human anatomy and physiology : laboratory textbook by Robert Bauman; Steve Dutton; Michelle Bauman


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