By Richard Braunstein
Braunstein's paintings explores all facets of initiative and referendum vote casting, together with the subject material of proposed legislation, their power expenditures and merits, poll factor crusade finance, and the electoral good fortune for every initiative in California, Colorado, and South Dakota. He exams the validity of competing claims that direct democracy is both the bane of democratic publics or their shield. His conclusions exhibit that electorate are extra subtle than many commentators imagine, that vote casting habit displays a choice for measures with commonly obtainable merits, and that inclusive public coverage may end up from poll factor elections - even these funded by way of geared up pursuits. those findings problem a conception that targeted pursuits, expert specialists, and governing elites dominate direct democracy.
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Additional resources for Initiative and Referendum Voting: Governing Through Direct Democracy in the United States (American Legal Institutions)
The Progressives’ broad reform orientation created cleavages across party, socioeconomic and professional lines. Ultimately, the Progressives would be successful in securing several positions in state and local governments. Agreement with reform principles was not, however, universal. Serious opposition existed from political bosses and associates of the Southern Pacific who were determined to inhibit the success of the Progressive reformers. In fact, the opposition “attempted to paint reformers as ‘communists’ and ‘radicals’ bent on undermining the established societal order” (California Commission, 1992, 39).
As the first Progressive governor of California, Johnson advocated a fundamental reshaping of state government. With the help of a Progressive majority in the legislature, he was successful in leading the legislature to approve a package of 23 amendments to the state constitution. The amendments, containing virtually every key element of the Progressive platform, were submitted to the electorate in a special election in 1911. The voters passed all but one amendment. 30 Initiative and Referendum Voting “Appropriately, the only defeated measure on the ballot would have allowed public officials to ride the trains with passes issued by the Southern Pacific” (California Commission, 1992, 41).
The industrial class became so adept at using legislation as a business practice that they would advance legislation restricting domestic and international competition, Legislative Types 19 as well as inhibiting the influence of labor unions (Greenberg, 1985; Reich, 1992). The popular perception was that business and political combinations had taken control of the political process, making it exceedingly difficult for ordinary citizens to live autonomous lives (McCormick, 1986; Hofstadter, 1974).
Initiative and Referendum Voting: Governing Through Direct Democracy in the United States (American Legal Institutions) by Richard Braunstein