Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st by Howard E. Gardner PDF

By Howard E. Gardner

ISBN-10: 0465026117

ISBN-13: 9780465026111

Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner has been acclaimed because the so much influential academic theorist on the grounds that John Dewey. His rules approximately intelligence and creativity - explicated in such bestselling books as Frames of Mind and Multiple Intelligences (over 200,000 copies in print mixed) - have revolutionized our thinking.In his groundbreaking 1983 booklet Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner first brought the idea of a number of intelligences, which posits that intelligence is greater than a unmarried estate of the human brain. That concept has turn into generally permitted as one of many seminal rules of the 20th century and maintains to draw consciousness all around the world.Now in Intelligence Reframed, Gardner presents a much-needed file at the concept, its evolution and revisions. He bargains functional advice at the academic makes use of of the idea and responds to the opinions leveled opposed to him. He additionally introduces new intelligences (existential intelligence and naturalist intelligence) and argues that the concept that of intelligence could be broadened, yet no longer so absurdly that it comprises each human advantage and price. eventually, argues Gardner, owning a easy set of 7 or 8 intelligences isn't just a distinct trademark of the human species, but additionally even perhaps a operating definition of the species. Gardner additionally deals provocative principles approximately creativity, management, and ethical excellence, and speculates concerning the dating among a number of intelligences and the realm of labor within the future.

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Extra info for Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century

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A person’s strength in one area of performance simply does not predict any comparable strengths in other areas. More specifically, some children seem to be good at many things; others, very few. In most cases, however, strengths are distributed in a skewed fashion. For instance, a person may be skilled in acquiring foreign languages, yet be unable to find her way around an unfamiliar environment or learn a new song or figure out who occupies a position of power in a crowd of strangers. Likewise, weakness in learning foreign languages does not predict either success or failure with most other cognitive tasks.

This theory presents two complementary claims. First, the theory is an account of human cognition in its fullness—I put forth the intelligences as a new definition of human nature, cognitively speaking. Whereas Socrates saw man as the rational animal and Freud stressed the irrationality of human beings, I (with due tentativeness) have described human beings as those organisms who possess a basic set of seven, eight, or a dozen intelligences. Thanks to evolution, each of us is equipped with these intellectual potentials, which we can mobilize and connect according to our own inclinations and our culture’s preferences.

The human brain seems to have evolved to process certain kinds of symbols efficiently. Put differently, symbol systems may have been developed precisely because of their preexisting, ready fit with the relevant intelligence or intelligences. Two of the criteria came from developmental psychology: 5. A distinct developmental history, along with a definable set of expert “end-state” performances. Individuals do not exhibit their intelligences “in the raw”; they do so by occupying certain relevant niches in their society, for which they must prepare by passing through an often lengthy developmental process.

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Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st Century by Howard E. Gardner

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