By Archana Ruhela, Malini Sinha
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Additional info for Livestock economics
For example, the equity objective is often framed in the context of providing food (including milk and meat) at prices the poor can afford. If done by means of consumer subsidies, it may mean favouring the urban sector (rich and poor) at the expense of the rural population. On the other hand, if the supply of cheap food is achieved by paying food producers low prices, this may discourage domestic production which conflicts with the efficiency and other objectives. Thus, a key consideration in any livestock development scheme is to understand the underlying development obje~tives and the policy environment within which the scheme will operate.
Depending partly on the cropping patterns adopted, the expansion of cropping areas reduces range feed supply in the rainy season, but increases feed from crop residues for the dry season. In addition, several important new technologies have been developed which show considerable promise for increasing fodder and forage for cattle. Three of these are alley farming, fodder banks, and zero grazing. For example, alley farming in Nigeria, Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire and Togo has demonstrated the potential to provide increased animal feed, 36 Livestock Economics directly through use of trimmings from the leguminous trees and indirectly, through increased crop yields providing greater production of crop residues.
High producers may consume up to 3 times their maintenance requirements. While moat of the energetic efficiency is reached at close to 2 times maintenance, feed costs per kg of output continue to decline significantly up to 3 times maintenance. Such high energy intake requires supplementation with high energy concentrates which in most of the developed world are cheaper per calorie than roughages. Thus, as concentrates are added to the diet, daily energy intake increases, energy requirements per kg of milk decrease, and cost per unit of feed energy decreases.
Livestock economics by Archana Ruhela, Malini Sinha