By F. Ferrara, E. Herron, M. Nishikawa
Utilizing election returns, public opinion surveys, and legislative roll-call information from many combined structures in each international quarter, the authors exhibit that illness systematically impacts celebration technique, vote casting behaviour, legislative team spirit and total constitution of partisan pageant.
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Extra resources for Mixed Electoral Systems: Contamination and Its Consequences
19 Many of these innovators became giants in electoral design, with their names immortalized in the elections nomenclature. The Marquis de Condorcet advocated pairwise competition among candidates; Charles de Borda created a weighted rank-order method of voting and decision making; Thomas Hare invented the Single Transferable Vote; Victor D’Hondt developed party-list proportional representation; and many others expanded the range of choices available to electoral systems designers (Farrell 2001; Reilly 2001).
In contrast, the three transition countries in the sample (Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine) had inchoate party systems during the 1990s. 6 By testing our propositions on a sample of countries distinguished by great variation in the levels of democratic consolidation and party system institutionalization, we seek to demonstrate that our theoretical expectations are applicable in various institutional and social settings. Evaluating Contamination Our first hypothesis states that the performance of political parties in the PR component of mixed electoral systems is improved by placing a candidate in corresponding majoritarian districts.
In noncompensatory mixed systems, no formal linkage exists between tiers of allocation. 17 Each party acquires the sum of the seats it received in the majoritarian and proportional components of the election. For example, eight parties in Ukraine overcame the 4 percent threshold in the PR component in 1998. They were thus eligible for seat allocation in the PR tier, which uses the Largest Remainders-Hare formula. To determine how many seats each party receives, a quota is calculated by dividing the number of eligible votes by the number of seats to be distributed.
Mixed Electoral Systems: Contamination and Its Consequences by F. Ferrara, E. Herron, M. Nishikawa