By Matthew Soberg Shugart, Visit Amazon's Martin P. Wattenberg Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Martin P. Wattenberg,
This e-book evaluates why mixed-member platforms have lately appealed to many nations with varied electoral histories, and the way good expectancies for those structures were met. each one significant kingdom that has followed a combined process is given chapters, one on origins and one on effects. The nations tested are Germany, New Zealand, Italy, Israel, Japan, Venezuela, Bolivia, Mexico, Hungary, and Russia. moreover, there are chapters at the clients for a mixed-member method being followed in Britain and Canada.
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Extra info for Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? (Comparative Politics)
That is not to say that they cannot be theorized on; rather, it is to say that they can be understood only with reference to empirically rich case studies. In this chapter, I focus on inherent factors in electoral reform. I suggest that those electoral systems that are “extreme” on either the interparty or intraparty dimension contain within themselves the preexisting conditions that generate reformist pressures. Some electoral systems repeatedly generate outcomes that come to be viewed as pathological by some actors, or by the general public.
Voters have no say in the order by which candidates are elected from a closed list. The major alternative to the closed list is the open list, wherein candidates receive preference votes from voters and the order of election from the list is determined by the number of preference votes received. 6There have been some alternatives to the closed list, however. 7Variations on the best-loser provision have been used in Mexico (1964–76), as well as by the Italian senate since 1993 and Japan's lower house since 1996.
EXTREME" ELECTORAL SYSTEMS 29 approach it must meet the twin conditions of: (1) structuring a clear government–opposition choice, one that can be endorsed by a majority of voters (the interparty dimension), and (2), encouraging parties and politicians to campaign on the basis of broad collective policy programs (the intraparty dimension). Deviations from the midpoint of either dimension therefore imply a diminution in efﬁciency. On the interparty dimension, one extreme deviation from interparty efﬁciency is what I shall call a pluralitarian system (Nagel 1994b), in which a majority government is formed by a party that received only a plurality of the votes.
Mixed-Member Electoral Systems: The Best of Both Worlds? (Comparative Politics) by Matthew Soberg Shugart, Visit Amazon's Martin P. Wattenberg Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Martin P. Wattenberg,