By Daniel Thalmann
MODULA-2 is a brand new programming language which was once created by means of Niklaus Wirth of the Swiss Federal Institute of know-how (ETH) in Zurich. The lan guage is derived from PASCAL: it comprises all features of PASCAL and a few occasions improves on them. in addition, MODULA-2 contains the real "mod ule" inspiration, in addition to multiprogramming features and a fashion of implemen ting low-level software program in a sublime demeanour. In precis, MODULA-2 can be used both good as a general-purpose programming language and as a method implementation language. MODULA-2 offers the programmer with a great way of writing top of the range software program. particularly, modules are strong instruments for reaching modularity, reliability, clarity, extensibility, reusability and ma chine-independence. This publication offers the entire MODULA-21anguage from the start. every one subject is gifted via various examples and every idea is justified. The syntax of the language is defined utilizing syntactic diagrams. This publication isn't a reference handbook for MODULA-2, yet a textbook from which the coed can study the language gradually. crucial con cepts (i.e. techniques, modules and information constructions) are defined in nice element and methodological features also are emphasised. starting within the first bankruptcy, the coed might execute his/her personal professional grams. application examples during this ebook were done on numerous machines (APPLE II, IBM computing device and VAX 11/780) and so they should be taken as a foundation for stu dents.
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Extra resources for Modula-2: An Introduction
For example, A> =B is a boolean expression because it has value either TRUE or FALSE. 0; Permission: = YourAge> =18. Only expressions of the same type may be compared. 0 PORQ=I+J 1 = TRUE because in each case the expressions compared are not of the same type. Real expressions should not be compared using = or #, because real numbers are not represented exactly in the machine. 1 cannot be exact in a limited number of bits. The best way of avoiding problems in the comparison between real expressions is to test whether the absolute difference between the two expressions is less than a tolerance value Epsilon.
For example, either I am at home or I am not; either I have enough money to buy the latest Porsche or I have not. It is therefore important to be able to define variables which can take precisely two values. Such variables are called logical variables or boolean variables (after the mathematician George Boole). In MODULA-2 there is a predefined type BOOLEAN. Any variable of type BOOLEAN can take one of the two values FALSE or TRUE, where FALSE and TRUE are standard identifiers. The two examples above can thus be expressed as follows: VAR AtHome, BuyPorsche: BOOLEAN; AtHome: = FALSE; (* I am not at home *) AtHome: = TRUE; (* I am at home *) BuyPorsche: = FALSE; (* I cannot buy a Porsche *) BuyPorsche: = TRUE; (* I can buy a Porsche *) There are three operators which can be applied to boolean values, each giving a boolean value as result: 1) The AND Operator When this operator is applied to two boolean values P and Q, the result is TRUE only if both P and Q are TRUE, otherwise it is FALSE.
Oj ReadCard(NumberOfNumbers)j WHILE Count<=NumberOfNumbers DO ReadRealCNumber)j INC(CoLlnt)j Sum:=Sum+Numberj TotSqrt:=TotSqrt+sqrtCNumber)j ENDj Average:=Sum/FLOATCNumberOfNumbers)j WriteString(" Average ")j WriteReal(Average,10)j WriteString(" TotSqrt: "); WriteReal (TotSqrt, 10); END Stat. 3 The module Stat (Version 3) Real(Number). It then waits for the user to type the first number. The process is repeated until the operator has typed six numbers. The operator may enter numbers in a free format, the only requirement being that numbers are separated by at least one blank.
Modula-2: An Introduction by Daniel Thalmann