By Robin K. Harris
Presents a unified account of NMR spectroscopy. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy explains the NMR phenomenon from the perspective of a actual chemist drawn to either primary ideas and chemical functions. This rigorous yet lucid textual content is highlighted by means of various figures together with illustrative spectra. difficulties - with solutions the place applicable - also are integrated.
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Additional info for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Physiocochemical View
T h e total magnetic m o m e n t or magnetization, M , of the sample' 5 ' is the resultant of the individual magnetic m o m e n t s |ju A t equilibrium M is along t h e +z direction and has a m a g n i t u d e : Mq = naixza + n 3 /a z 3 = An 0 /x 2 a = \yh An0 (1-21) since /x z3 = — ixza. Substitution f o r An 0 gives expression (1-22): Fig. 1-6 The effect of a rotating magnetic field, B,, on a precessing magnetic moment, ja. When the B 0 - B , plane is perpendicular to the B 0 - j i . plane as in the figure, there is a force F acting to increase the angle between B 0 and P,.
In principle, if e n o u g h information about electron densities and electronic wave f u n c tions were available, values of t h e bulk susceptibility could be calculated, since the intensity of magnetization can be e q u a t e d to the total magnetic m o m e n t induced p e r unit volume. It is clear that the electrons will shield (or screen) a nucleus f r o m the influence of the field B0. This shielding can b e taken into account by using an effective field B at the nucleus, given by B=B0(l- H o w e v e r , if F d is chosen as the 'third' nucleus, it can H. JL CI f H„ C\ / CI Hb CI s n , , j—F F Fa 1-[I] Pi— 1-[III] i-[H] b e seen that t h e (H b , F d ) relationship is not t h e s a m e as the (H c , F d ) o n e — t h e y are meta and ortho respectively. T h e corresponding coupling constants are t h e r e f o r e unequal, and t h e p r o t o n s are magnetically non-equivalent; they are merely chemically equivalent. It is perfectly possible to have a situation with two isochronous pairs of nuclei which d o have magnetic equivalence.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Physiocochemical View by Robin K. Harris
H o w e v e r , if F d is chosen as the 'third' nucleus, it can H. JL CI f H„ C\ / CI Hb CI s n , , j—F F Fa 1-[I] Pi— 1-[III] i-[H] b e seen that t h e (H b , F d ) relationship is not t h e s a m e as the (H c , F d ) o n e — t h e y are meta and ortho respectively. T h e corresponding coupling constants are t h e r e f o r e unequal, and t h e p r o t o n s are magnetically non-equivalent; they are merely chemically equivalent. It is perfectly possible to have a situation with two isochronous pairs of nuclei which d o have magnetic equivalence.