By Chi-Tang Ho, Cynthia Mussinan, Fereidoon Shahidi, Ellene Tratras Contis, Hirotoshi Tamura, ACS Food Chemistry Division
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Additional resources for Nutrition, Functional and Sensory Properties of Foods
If the liquid is transparent at the laser wavelength, a plasma can be formed in the bulk liquid below the surface . Compared with LIBS analysis in air, the plasma formed in the bulk liquid decays more rapidly, emission lines appear broader, and the temperature is lower, typically starting at no more than 7000–12 000 K. 1) in which two sequential laser pulses, separated in time, typically by microseconds, interrogate the same volume of the sample. The first pulse produces a vapor cavity that is then interrogated by the second pulse, replicating an analysis that would be carried out in air.
The use of laser ablation for the laser microprobe was well reviewed by MoenkeBlankenburg . It was concluded that, although many applications were done in ambient air, reduced pressure or the use of other gases held advantages in some cases. 9 shows how the visual appearance of the spark has a strong dependence on air pressure. Monitoring of element emission signals shows that the strongest signals are recorded for pressures in the range 10–100 Torr . Regarding other gases, the use of argon at pressures from 103 to 106 Pa was cited as having advantages of decreasing molecular interferences, increasing spark intensities, and allowing for observations below the Shumann–Runge cutoff at 200 nm.
At sufficiently high laser intensities optical breakdown commenced. It was a non-equilibrium transition state from a partially ionized vapor to a fully ionized plasma dominated by Coulomb collisions. In the macroscopic picture, the threshold depended on the ionization potential, the excited electronic state distribution of neutral atoms and, surprisingly, on the initial temperature of the evaporated material. Copper atoms and ions were used in this model. Details of the energy levels and ionization potentials were used.
Nutrition, Functional and Sensory Properties of Foods by Chi-Tang Ho, Cynthia Mussinan, Fereidoon Shahidi, Ellene Tratras Contis, Hirotoshi Tamura, ACS Food Chemistry Division