By Usman Khan
Participation past the poll field is a welcome boost to the literature on democracy and the function of civil society. It demonstrates that new mechanisms being brought in Western Europe can and do provide the aptitude to noticeably enhance the democratic approach.
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Extra info for Participation Beyond the Ballot Box
However, in addition, schools might establish “user” boards, an initiative which would be collective and particularist, for reasons given above. Finally, the school user boards might be able to elect representatives or delegates to an authority which had overall control for schools in the locality. In that case the initiative would be collective and holistic, as shown earlier. The flexibility of the public involvement matrix is taken up in the concluding chapter. Some of the initiatives fall within the exit component of influence and aim to empower people as individual consumers.
For him the notion that identity and being are totally indeterminate is a position that even Laclau and Mouffe cannot sustain. There has to be some fixity for social theory to be meaningful: But if there were truly no fixity, thoroughgoing social indeterminacy and that is all, there would be nothing more of consequence for the putative social theorist to say, a fact which Laclau and Mouffe have duly to acknowledge, with the concession, “a discourse incapable of generating any fixity of meaning is the discourse of the psychotic”.
They argue that since it was forced to abandon many of its crude universalistic ideas, Marxism has been wracked by a series of dualisms, which are equally insupportable. For Laclau and Mouffe, a crucial distinction has to be made between the existence and being of things. Being or identity, for Laclau and Mouffe, is always discursively constructed and necessarily unstable: If all identity is differential it is enough that the system of differences is not closed, that it suffers the action of external discursive structures, for any identity to be unstable.
Participation Beyond the Ballot Box by Usman Khan