By Wolfgang Walz
Continuing the examine of the best-selling first variation, this moment version collects 3 extra years of study within the ever-expanding research of the cellphone membrane. It covers the newest advancements within the "traditional" patch innovations. This authoritative moment version updates the traditional innovations whereas introducing 3 fresh, state of the art technical advances within the field.
Thorough and well timed, this variation is a useful resource.
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Extra resources for Patch-clamp analysis : advanced techniques
These amplifiers are overall similar in design and are both equipped with multistage Bessel filters, variable gain settings, and at least 2 feedback resistor settings for whole-cell and single-channel recordings. The single most important electronic component of a patchclamp amplifier is the current-to-voltage converter, which is contained in the headstage. Its characteristics are described in detail elsewhere (Sigworth, 1983; see Fig. 1). Current flow through the electrode (Ip) across a resistor of high impedance (R) causes a voltage drop that is proportional to the measured pipet current (Ip).
For a 10 kHz bandwidth the noise will increase to about 40 pA rms. With noises of this magnitude, the pipet noise mechanisms previously discussed become quite insignificant. It can therefore be concluded that many of the characteristics of the pipet that were important to patch clamping are not important to a wholecell voltage-clamp situation. The noise arising from Re and Cm in whole-cell voltage clamping can only be minimized by minimizing Re and/or Cm. Of course, minimizing Cm means selecting small cells and this is often not possible.
06 kHz (-3 dB bandwidth of the 1 pole low-pass filter arising from Re and Cm). This does not, however, mean that setting the external filter to a bandwidth higher than 1 kHz will not add more noise. Increasing the bandwidth of the external filter to 5 kHz will increase the noise to more than 3 pA rms, but it will provide very little signal information that was not contained when the data was filtered at 1 kHz. Series (pipet) resistance compensation can extend the usable bandwidth, but, of course it will significantly increase the noise at external filter bandwidths higher than 1/2πReCm.
Patch-clamp analysis : advanced techniques by Wolfgang Walz