By Jian Kang Wu, Mohan S. Kankanhalli, Joo-Hwee Lim, Dezhong Hong
Multimedia facts comprising of pictures, audio and video is turning into more and more universal. The lowering bills of patron digital units comparable to electronic cameras and electronic camcorders, in addition to the benefit of transportation facilitated by means of the web, has result in a wonderful upward thrust within the volume of multimedia info generated and disbursed. provided that this pattern of elevated use of multimedia info is probably going to speed up, there's an pressing desire for supplying a transparent technique of shooting, storing, indexing, retrieving, interpreting and summarizing such facts.
Content-based entry to multimedia facts is of basic value because it is the normal approach through which people have interaction with such details. To facilitate the content-based entry of multimedia details, step one is to derive function measures from those facts in order that a characteristic house illustration of the knowledge content material could be shaped. this may therefore let for mapping the function house to the logo house (semantics) both instantly or via human intervention. hence, sign to image mapping, necessary for any useful method, will be effectively accomplished.
Perspectives on Content-Based Multimedia Systems presents a finished set of ideas to take on those vital matters. This e-book deals certain strategies to quite a lot of functional difficulties in construction genuine structures via delivering specifics of 3 platforms equipped via the authors. whereas supplying a structures concentration, it additionally equips the reader with a willing figuring out of the basic concerns, together with a formalism for content-based multimedia database platforms, multimedia characteristic extraction, object-based options, signature-based suggestions and fuzzy retrieval suggestions. The functionality overview problems with useful structures can be defined. This publication brings jointly crucial parts of establishing a content-based multimedia database process in a fashion that makes them available to practitioners in laptop technological know-how and electric engineering. it might additionally function a textbook for graduate-level courses.
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Additional resources for Perspectives on Content-Based Multimedia Systems
K) is the desired retrieval sequence for the sample si in a proper order. ; ... Having compared the retrieval results with the ideal one, we found that some retrieval objects should appear more to the front, and some should move more to the rear. We refer these absolute position shifts as mis-rank. , ... If we assign a unit loss to a mis-rank, the total loss of the retrieval would be: m Σij ij /K L= K where K is the length of retrieval sequence, and the average loss of the retrieval would be: ^ _L L= N where N is the number of mis-rank sequences in the training data set.
2 Feature extraction Every face image is marked with a set of 17 points called landmarks. These points are a subset of anthropometric landmarks of the face. They 42 Chapter 2 identify salient points of the face like corners of eyes, tip of nose, chin, etc. Using these landmarks as anchor points, six different regions each containing one of the six facial features namely, eye, nose, mouth, eyebrow, hair and chin are extracted from each image. These six regions are then individually subject to principle component analysis (K-L transform) and 16 components corresponding to the 16 largest eigenvalues are extracted.
Feature measures which can best distinguish among classes in pattern classification may not be appropriate for similarity matching in content-based retrieval. Moreover, unlike pattern classification, content-based retrieval is an interactive and iterative process. Users’ feedback must be respected and incorporated to refine the retrieval results in successive iterations until the Formalism of Content-based Multimedia Systems 29 user is satisfied with the retrieved results. Last but not least, in contentbased retrieval, users’ perception of similarity is implicit and subjective.
Perspectives on Content-Based Multimedia Systems by Jian Kang Wu, Mohan S. Kankanhalli, Joo-Hwee Lim, Dezhong Hong