By Christian Rommel, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Peter K. Vogt
PI3K has turn into a truly excessive zone of study, with over 2000 guides on PI3K in PubMed for 2009 on my own. the expectancies for a healing influence of intervention with PI3K job are excessive, and growth within the scientific enviornment is being monitored through many. besides the fact that, exact remedies virtually consistently come upon roadblocks, usually exposing unresolved questions within the simple knowing of the objective
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There is some disagreement in the literature regarding the role of PIK3CA mutation in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer, perhaps in part due to the wide variety of different pathological types of this disease. However, when taken together, the studies suggest that PIK3CA mutations are more important in the pathogenesis of anaplastic thyroid cancer and follicular thyroid cancer than in the pathogenesis of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. In the initial, very large study, Garcia-Rostan identified PIK3CA mutations in 16% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, 8% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 2% of papillary thyroid carcinomas (Garcia-Rostan et al.
1991). This was further substantiated by the discovery that some avian and murine retroviruses encode oncogenic derivatives of the cellular PIK3CA and Akt genes, respectively (Bellacosa et al. 1991; Chang et al. 1997; Staal 1987). Furthermore, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), which reverses the reaction catalyzed by PI3Ks by dephosphorylating 3-position on inositol head groups, was found to be a tumor suppressor gene commonly mutated in human tumors (Li et al. 1997; Steck et al. 1997) resulting in constitutive activation of the PI3K pathway.
2007, 2008), and further demonstrated that PIK3CA mutations are present in solar lentigo, thought to be a precursor lesion for SK (Hafner et al. 2009). These intriguing findings challenge the idea that PIK3CA mutations are associated with tumor cell invasion (Samuels et al. 2004). Additionally, they are reminiscent of previous findings in colon cancer demonstrating that if K-Ras mutations occur in the early stages of tumorigenesis, they lead to the formation of a benign lesion known as an aberrant crypt focus instead of frank cancer (Jen et al.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Health and Disease: by Christian Rommel, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Peter K. Vogt