By Linda S. Costanzo PhD
Clinical university of Virginia, Richmond. evaluate designed for clinical scholars getting ready for path checks or the USMLE Step 1. contains case-based difficulties and questions with ideas and motives. Emphasizes integrative and conceptual pondering. prepared by means of physique approach. Softcover.
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Extra info for Physiology: Cases and Problems: Board Review Series
5). The AHP is attributed to the activation of a calcium-activated potassium conductance (GKCa) that gradually declines after the spike (Binder, Heckman, and Powers 1996; Kudina and Alexeeva 1992). Injection of a calcium chelator into the cell or exposure of the cell to the bee venom apamin (a specific GKCa channel blocker) or to cobalt or manganese significantly reduces the AHP, indicating that it is controlled by calcium influx. It appears to be the only electrophysiological variable that can unequivocally distinguish fast motor units from slow motor units in both the cat and the rat (Zengel et al.
Van Bolhuis, Medendorp, and Gielen (1997) addressed this research using a rather novel approach. They had subjects perform horizontal elbow flexions against small loads, during which they generated forces in a sinusoidal manner at various frequencies and under isometric and isotonic conditions. The researchers found that the behavior of the same motor units in brachialis and biceps muscles varied depending on the type of contraction (isometric or isotonic) and the speed of the sinusoidal movements.
2 Spike-triggered averaging has been used to determine relationships between(a) twitch contraction time and twitch force and (b) twitch forceE4477/Gardiner/fig and recruitment threshold motor units74/KE/R1 of the human first dorsal interosseus. 2a, in b/373573, Reprinted by permission from Stephens and Usherwood 1977. Motor Unit Recruitment During Different Types of Movements demonstrated by this technique in a variety of muscles, especially the muscles of the hand and wrist and the lower leg. Experiments in which motor unit firing rates have been examined as a function of isometric contraction up to MVC offer insights into the complex way in which recruitment and rate coding are used to augment muscle force.
Physiology: Cases and Problems: Board Review Series by Linda S. Costanzo PhD