By H. Compston
This learn applies coverage community concept to significant technological, fiscal, environmental and social developments to generate propositions concerning the way forward for public coverage. one of the findings are that we should always anticipate extra business-friendly rules, extra intrusive legislations enforcement, extra women-friendly regulations, and more suitable weather regulations.
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Extra info for Policy Networks and Policy Change: Putting Policy Network Theory to the Test
There are also other types of national-level public actors, such as the armed services, that are involved in certain policy areas. In numerous policy areas public actors at the European Union (EU) level (in the case of EU member states) or the subnational level (especially in federal systems) are also involved. The EU decision-making process means that in many policy areas foreign governments are involved in decisionmaking that affects member states. And it is important not to forget the role of the American government where it considers American interests are involved.
Finally, the focus on identifying exactly what is exchanged means that a distinction needs to be made between resources that are actually exchanged, which I call tradable resources, and resources that are not exchanged but make it possible for political actors to control and exchange tradable resources, which I call enabling resources. The main tradable resources identified can be divided into three categories: 1 Resources that only public actors control: policy amendments, and access to the policy making process; 2 Resources that may be traded by either public or private actors: veto power, information, cooperation with implementation, recourse to the courts, political support, and patronage; and 3 Resources that are available to private actors alone, in particular corporations: private investment, and fluid funds.
But not all of the resources identified in the literature are tradable in any direct sense. Public actors, for example, do not formally transfer legal authority to the actors with which they are exchanging resources. What are really being traded are policy concessions or amendments. The significance of legal authority is that this is what enables the relevant public actor to trade policy amendments: it is an enabling resource rather than a tradable resource. For this reason it is necessary to distinguish tradable resources from other types of resources.
Policy Networks and Policy Change: Putting Policy Network Theory to the Test by H. Compston