By Göran E. Nilsson
How do vertebrates get the oxygen they wish, or perhaps deal with with no it for shorter or longer classes of time? How do they experience oxygen, how do they take it up from water or air, and the way do they shipping it to their tissues? breathing process variations let a variety of vertebrates to thrive in severe environments the place oxygen availability is proscribed or the place there isn't any oxygen in any respect. Written for college kids and researchers in comparative body structure, this authoritative precis of vertebrate breathing body structure starts off through exploring the basics of oxygen sensing, uptake and shipping in a textbook sort. in this case, the reader is proven very important examples of utmost breathing functionality, like diving and excessive altitude survival in mammals and birds, air inhaling fish, and people few vertebrates which may continue to exist with none oxygen in any respect for a number of months, displaying how evolution has solved the matter of lifestyles with no oxygen.
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Extra info for Respiratory Physiology of Vertebrates: Life With and Without Oxygen
Trinidad, B. and Fandrey, J. (2007). Nitric oxide modulates oxygen sensing by hypoxia-inducible factor 1-dependent induction of prolyl hydroxylase 2. J. Biol. , 282, 1788–96. , Roux, D. and Pouyssegur, J. (2003). HIF prolyl-hydroxylase 2 is the key oxygen sensor setting low steady-state levels of HIF-1α in normoxia. , 22, 4082–90. , Ginouves, A. and Pouyssegur, J. (2006). The hypoxia-inducible-factor hydroxylases bring fresh air into hypoxia signalling. , 7, 41–5. Bogdanova, A. and Nikinmaa, M.
G. serotonin, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine, ATP, adenosine, NO, and CO. Sensing oxygen oxygen sensor of the carotid body has been studied intensively, its nature is still not clear. It is possible that there are several different oxygen sensors. The presence of several oxygen sensors with different affinities for oxygen makes it possible for the carotid body to respond appropriately to a wide range of oxygen tensions (Prabhakar, 2006). , 1994). In addition to sensing oxygen, the cells of the carotid body also respond to changes in, for example, carbon dioxide tension, intracellular pH, and glucose.
Gu, Y. Z. and Bradfield, C. A. (1999). Cross-talk between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor signaling pathways – demonstration of competition and compensation. J. Biol. , 274, 12115–23. Chandel, N. S. and Budinger, G. R. S. (2007). The cellular basis for diverse responses to oxygen. Free Rad. Biol. , 42, 165–74. , Shuralyova, I. and Coe, I. R. (2004). Hypoxia regulates the adenosine transporter, mENT1, in the murine cardiomyocyte cell line, HL-1. Cardiovasc. , 61, 780–8.
Respiratory Physiology of Vertebrates: Life With and Without Oxygen by Göran E. Nilsson