Smarandache Semigroups by W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy PDF

By W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy

ISBN-10: 1931233594

ISBN-13: 9781931233590

Definition:

Generally, in any human box, a Smarandache constitution on a collection a way a susceptible constitution W on A such that there exists a formal subset B integrated in A that's embedded with a far better constitution S.

These sorts of buildings take place in our lifestyle, that’s why we learn them during this booklet.

Thus, as a selected case:

A Smarandache Semigroup is a semigroup A which has a formal subset B incorporated in A that could be a staff (with admire to an analogous binary operation on A).

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Extra resources for Smarandache Semigroups

Example text

At this point the reader might ask whether there is any obvious advantage to this dual mode of handling information. There is no doubt that the pulse code of nerve fibers is a particularly secure and precise method of transmitting signals. Secure, because the 'safety factor of propagation' is high. The current drawn by an action potential is several times the minimum required for conduction to 30 Introduction occur. It is precise because the impulses are many times greater than the 'noise' of the system.

There is a gap of no more than 500 A (= 50 nm; or a range of 10 to 50 nm) between the membranes on the two sides of a synapse. The axon terminal is called the presynaptic ending, the neuron receiving information from that ending is designated as postsynaptic, and the portion of its membrane directly opposite the presynaptic terminal is the subsynaptic membrane. A nerve impulse arriving at the presynaptic ending causes the release of a chemical, the transmitter substance. After diffusing across the narrow intercellular cleft, the transmitter substance acts upon the sub synaptic membrane, causing its permeability to ions to be altered.

We speak ofaxo-dendritic, axo-somatic, and axo-axonal synapses. Neurons are surrounded by satellite cells. In the central nervous system these are called glia, in peripheral nerves Schwann cells. In electron micrographs the surface, or plasma membrane, of a neuron is always found side by side to the membrane of such a satellite cell, except at synapses where neuron lies beside neuron and possibly also at the receptor ending of some nerve fibers, which may be bare of a satellite envelope. The precise nature of this quasi-symbiotic existence of neuron and satellite cell is not entirely understood.

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Smarandache Semigroups by W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy


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