By Rudolf O. Muller
In fresh years the x-ray fluorescence approach has develop into more and more vital in sleek research and construction regulate; it may be categorized as a spectroscopical strategy for the selection of the fundamental com place. Many articles deal with this technique; besides the fact that, there exists no sleek textbook compatible for the newbie in addition to the practician and theoretician. during this monograph the writer intends to fill this have to current the prin ciples of x-ray fluorescence research and to strengthen a theoretical lower than status of the process. either ideas and concept w.ill be handled exten sively, for they're the root for winning functional program of the tactic. X-ray fluorescence, however, is usually performed completely due to its useful usefulness. consequently theoretical investigations are used completely as a foundation for functional paintings and the multitude of functions, which represent the price of the x-ray fluores cence approach, should be defined at the foundation of straightforward idea. the belief to put in writing this monograph originated and constructed whilst efforts to coach coworkers required a extra entire treatise. i need to thank the elBA Aktiengesellschaft in Basel, the place this paintings originated, for beneficiant aid and permission to submit the ebook. the pinnacle of the Physics division, Dr. E. Ganz, and my colleagues have contributed to this booklet via delivering a stimulating operating surroundings. i'm thankful to my affiliates, particularly Messrs. E. Eng, S. Gasser, and H. R.
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Extra info for Spectrochemical Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence
V 20 r--- 35 I~V / 40 60 80 Z only nf transitions are associated with the emission of x-ray quanta while in (n - n f ) cases no x-ray quanta are emitted. The fluorescent yield W is defined as the fraction nr/n of all electron transitions which are associated with the emission of an x-ray quantum W=~ n Individual shells of an atom have different fluorescent yields, which are designated WK , WL> etc. 82. In case of aluminum only about 2 % of all electron transitions which terminate in the K shell are associated with the emission of characteristic AIKa or AIKn lines.
In this process an electron of the atom is removed from its normal energy level and, as a photoelectron, absorbs the total energy of the x-ray quantum. The absorbed energy is, in part, consumed as the work required to remove the photoelectron from the atom (ionization work A). The remaining energy appears as kinetic energy of the photoelectron. The kinetic energy of the photoelectron is given as 1 -mv 2 2 = hv-A where v is the frequency of the absorbed radiation and h is Planck's constant. The production of photoelectrons may be seen in a Wilson cloud chamber.
Th . & Fig. 10. Intensity anomalies. The characteristic radiation of the x-ray tube may cause selective excitation of certain energy levels of an atom. The particular lines of the resulting spectrum are therefore unusually intense. Left: thorium excited by a gold x-ray tube. Right: thorium excited by a molybdenum x-ray tube. The MoK" line may cause additional excitation of the Lm energy level of the thorium and, hence, more frequent occurrence of the transitions Lm ->- Mv and Lm ->- N v (topaz diffraction crystal, scintillation counter).
Spectrochemical Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence by Rudolf O. Muller