Alice Wang, Benton H. Calhoun, Anantha P. Chandrakasan's Sub-threshold Design for Ultra Low-Power Systems (Series on PDF

By Alice Wang, Benton H. Calhoun, Anantha P. Chandrakasan

ISBN-10: 0387335153

ISBN-13: 9780387335155

ISBN-10: 0387345019

ISBN-13: 9780387345017

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Additional resources for Sub-threshold Design for Ultra Low-Power Systems (Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems)

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5 VDD(V) Fig. 17. Dependence of minimum energy point on temperature shown in simulation (markers) and by the numerical model (lines). Temperature varies from 25°C to 115°C. 18 shows the numerical model (a) and simulation (b) of a pipelined implementation of the F I R filter. The model does not account for overhead capacitance, leakage, and delay in the pipeline registers, but it shows the general effect of ideal pipelining. As the number of stages increases, Lpp decreases and thus reduces leakage energy per operation {EL).

Sub-threshold CMOS circuits emerged again in 2001 as a solution for a hearing-aid application. The hearing-aid required very low frequency clocks, aird thus could operate in sub-threshold. Various CMOS d a t a p a t h circuits were designed such as a Delayed Least Mean Square (DLMS) filter [90] and adders [91]. 47V. Also, this research explored different logic families for sub-tlireshold. The adder design used variable threshold voltage CMOS logic t h a t has a controller that biases the pMOS and nMOS backgates.

W^ff is determined by simulating the circuit's steadystate leakage current and normalizing to the characteristic inverter. Since Wefj is a function of circuit state, averaging the circuit leakage current for simulations over many states improves the total leakage estimate. Simulating to exercise the circuit's critical path, measuring its delay, and normalizing to the characteristic inverter provides the logic depth, LDP- Solving this set of equations provides a good estimate of the optimum for the average case and shows how the optimum point depends on the major parameters.

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Sub-threshold Design for Ultra Low-Power Systems (Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems) by Alice Wang, Benton H. Calhoun, Anantha P. Chandrakasan


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