By H. Schmeets
On thirteen and 14 September 1997, municipal elections happened in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This ebook generally covers the findings of the 363 foreign observers on either polling days. have been the elections `free and fair'? What did the observers list concerning the situations, systems and safeguard measurements on the polling stations? Which events saw the elections, and why? How did the election technique and the vote count number examine to the 1996 elections?
This e-book offers a neighborhood profile and descriptions particular difficulties within the a number of sorts of polling stations. The commentary technique and layout of the remark reviews are mentioned. eventually, techniques are made for the approaching 1998 election observations, and destiny missions. The e-book will be of curiosity to scholars, students and others operating within the fields of commentary and research of elections, ethnic conflicts within the Balkans, and the position of overseas firms in democratisation and peace processes.
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Additional resources for The 1997 Municipal Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of the Observations
And H. Schmeets (1998), Survey data collection methodology for election missions: how professional form design helps to control a survey (submitted to International Journal for Public Opinion Research). 29 The principle of accountability, however, refers only to the period after the elections and concerns elected people taking office. 2 The content of the form The design of the questionnaires was based on the experiences from earlier election obseIVations for the State Duma in Russia (1995), the Russian presidential elections (1996), the 1997 Parliamentary elections in Albania, and in particular the 1996 Bosnia-Herzegovina elections.
Many illiterate". Another team based in Doboj reported about a cross-municipality station: "Large crowd, waiting for 2-3 hours". An observer team that observed an absentee station in Kakanj wrote down: "Many people had to wait for more than 30 minutes even at 8:00. some of them were unsatisfied and angry". 1 3 62 8 In a very few stations (1 %) intimidation of voters was observed. One observer team recorded: "A member of one of the parties represented, tried persistently to claim and make voters who needed assistance in voting that they should tell in public who they voted".
2 Circumstances In addition to their general opinion, observers indicated some specific problems or irregularities as to the circumstances at the polling stations. Observers were asked to report about four specific circumstances: Polling station overcrowded, intimidation of voters, agitation or unrest, and campaigning at the polling station. Observers witnessed that 7% of the polling stations were overcrowded (see table 2). One team wrote down: "Very long queues. Too many had to wait very long time before voting.
The 1997 Municipal Elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of the Observations by H. Schmeets