By Vicki L. Hesli, William M. Reisinger
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Additional resources for The 1999-2000 Elections in Russia: Their Impact and Legacy
Fish explores possible explanations, such as the cultural and historical legacies of Russia and the superpresidentialism structure of the Russian 22 Vicki L. Hesli government, for why elections in Russia have not encouraged party system development. Superpresidentialism, as characterized by the extraordinary ` power of the president vis-a-vis other potential sites of power within and outside the government, is identified as the primary obstacle to party development in Russia. This obstacle to party development is exacerbated by the timing of the elections (holding the parliamentary elections just six months before the presidential elections) and the nomination process that does not require party endorsement.
While there are commercial television stations in Russia, they 11 Figures from a March 2000 survey of 1,600 respondents in Russia, commissioned by Stephen White and Richard Rose. For more results from this survey, please see Chapter 3. TV, Voters, and Development of the “Broadcast Party” 39 either have been overtly controlled by owners (as in the case of TV-6) or have tended to take sides in political battles and fail to always meet the standards of objectivity (as in the case of NTV). It should be noted that NTV was still a commercial news outlet relatively independent from government control at the time of the elections under study in this volume.
However, it can be argued that the concept of a broadcast party could provide more understanding of the critical elements of this particular political phenomenon – as well as make it easier to export the concept to elucidate the relationship between television and political parties in other countries. In the first Russian Federation parliamentary elections, the use of television by political parties generally was not characterized by an “Americanized” style (Oates 1998 [a]). Rather, with little experience in political marketing, most parties opted for a Soviet-style focus on the leader and speeches.
The 1999-2000 Elections in Russia: Their Impact and Legacy by Vicki L. Hesli, William M. Reisinger