The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese - download pdf or read online

By Ruth Benedict

ISBN-10: 0618619593

ISBN-13: 9780618619597

Crucial studying for somebody drawn to eastern tradition, this unsurpassed masterwork opens an fascinating window on Japan. Benedict’s international battle II–era learn paints an illuminating distinction among the tradition of Japan and that of the USA. The Chrysanthemum and the Sword is a revealing examine how and why our cultures range, making it definitely the right advent to eastern historical past and customs.

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Additional resources for The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture

Sample text

As will be shown in this study’s examination of the role played by the opposition in the case of education reform, the opposition’s ability to block certain initiatives may best be seen as an indirect power arising from its ability to ‘break the conservative consensus’ by raising vocal protests and convincing a segment of the conservative camp to back down. The Pempel-Campbell model The arguments of Pempel and Campbell, if modified to allow for a limited opposition role, thus provide the basis for a fairly complete model of conflict resolution patterns in Japanese policy-making: (1) low-conflict disputes—some combination of high divisibility, wide scope and low affect—tend to result in incremental change or 19 EDUCATION REFORM IN JAPAN pressure group pluralism involving ‘contrived consensus’ type decision-making; (2) high-conflict disputes involving outside forces—again defined on Pempel’s scale—result in camp conflict and either (a) forced resolution by the government or (b) opposition success in convincing at least some conservatives to back down— thereby creating a situation not unlike the next category; (3) highconflict disputes involving primarily conservative camp actors result in conflict avoidance and little change.

The Occupation had left the MOE with only the authority to issue curriculum ‘guidelines’. 42 Concurrent changes required that textbooks conform with the curriculum—a provision enforced by a group of ministry ‘reviewers’. Through these ordinances, the MOE succeeded in re-establishing national control over textbooks without a legislative change. 43 Having established strict national standards, the only remaining step in the government’s effort to regain control of education was to force teachers to comply.

Campbell. Neither provides a theory that is perfectly explanatory, though elements in both theories provide important insights. The Pempel contribution Although his study (published in 1978) is somewhat dated, Pempel’s attempt to describe how certain types of issues tend to produce certain types of conflict resolution techniques provides a useful starting-point for this attempt to develop a framework for an issuespecific study. According to his analysis, based on a study of policy in the area of high education, conflict resolution techniques tend to depend on the ‘divisibility’, ‘scope’ and ‘affect’ of the issue.

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The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture by Ruth Benedict


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