By Fabrizio Barca, Marco Becht
Describes how indexed businesses are managed in 9 diversified eu nations, and features a bankruptcy at the united states, permitting transatlantic comparability. Explores the points of company keep watch over which are such a lot fashionable within the state involved.
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Extra info for The Control of Corporate Europe
Ownership of voting blocks Not only does the scale of corporate control differ appreciably across countries but so too do the parties who exert it. 2 shows the number of blocks and the mean, median, minimum, and maximum size of blocks held by different classes of investors in Austria, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. 18 show the number of reported blocks owned by different classes of investors in UK, German, and Austrian companies. The UK As is well known, financial institutions, pension funds and life insurance companies are the dominant class of shareholders in the UK.
In addition, the company by-laws require a 80% super-majority for major decisions, including any changes to the by-laws. Shareholder proposed to declassify the board in 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 and won a majority of the votes attending. , Proxy Statement, filed 3/13/2000). Even if a super-majority had been won, the board could have ignored the resolution. Proposals filed under the widely-used SEC Rule 14a-8 are only precatory in nature (Black 1998). Like Eastman Kodak, most S&P500 put a variety of anti-takeover devices in place at the beginning of the 1990s.
Conversely, due to their weakness, boards can provide very little protection to minority shareholders of Belgian companies. However, in other countries of Continental Europe, significant protection is provided once shareholdings reach certain critical levels. Firstly, there are disclosure rules relating to the accumulation of shareholdings above critical levels of, for example, 3%, 5%, or 10%. Secondly, in Austria and Germany, shareholdings in excess of 25% can block certain key actions of a firm regarding, for example, the issuance of new equity.
The Control of Corporate Europe by Fabrizio Barca, Marco Becht