Download e-book for iPad: The Politics of Animal Experimentation by Dan Lyons (auth.)

By Dan Lyons (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1041081111

ISBN-13: 9781041081111

ISBN-10: 113731950X

ISBN-13: 9781137319500

ISBN-10: 1349346837

ISBN-13: 9781349346837

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Furthermore, certain policy outcomes may relate directly to changes in policy network dimensions, such as decisions to alter the membership of policy-making bodies or patterns of consultation, which may themselves influence future policy outcomes (Marsh, 1998b: 197; Hill, 1997: 22–3). Jordan and Greenaway (1998: 672) address the issue of degrees of policy change when they cite Hall’s (1993) three-tiered model of policy learning: ● ● ● The precise settings or calibrations of policy instruments (first order) The particular techniques or policy tools employed to provide policy solutions (second order) The overarching goals which guide policy-making (third order).

A further, crucial source of variation occurs within the policy network, particularly between formulation and implementation phases of policy-making. In environmental regulation, for example, while policy formulation 36 The Politics of Animal Experimentation reflects EU-stimulated attempts to move towards more open, formal and rule-based approaches to regulation, implementation processes continue to benefit business interests through informal and highly cohesive relations between regulators and business that are indicative of policy communities (Moran, 2003: 171; Smith, 1997).

The power of producer interests to influence the packaging waste policy subsector is said to demonstrate the uneven resource distribution typical of issue networks. However, environmental NGOs and parliamentarians were able to enter the network and exert some influence, varying from case to case, as a result of resources such as technical information and democratic legitimacy (Bomberg, 1998: 175). Indeed, the wide array of policy network membership – a defining aspect of an issue network model – is said to be facilitated by the particularly open nature of the institution nominally responsible for environmental policy, DG XI (Bomberg, 1998: 173).

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The Politics of Animal Experimentation by Dan Lyons (auth.)

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