By Carmen Teresa Whalen, Víctor Vázquez-Hernández
Puerto Ricans have a protracted heritage of migrating to and construction groups in a variety of components of the us looking for a greater lifestyles. From their arrival in Hawai'i in 1900 to the post-World battle II era—during which groups flourished through the Midwest and New England—the Puerto Rican diaspora has been becoming gradually. actually, the 2000 census indicates that just about as many Puerto Ricans reside within the usa as in Puerto Rico itself.
The participants to this quantity offer an outline of the Puerto Rican event in the United States, delving into specific elements of colonization and citizenship, migration and group development. every one bankruptcy bridges the background with modern concerns. during the textual content, own narratives and images deliver those histories to lifestyles, whereas grappling with underlying explanations and significant matters resembling racism and employment that form Puerto Rican lifestyles in the US.
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Extra resources for The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives
As the United States restricted European immigration, low-wage jobs became more readily available, and Puerto Ricans ﬁlled many of the vacancies. Puerto Ricans also sought to limit the harsh “climate” created by the dominant society, sometimes by migrating elsewhere and sometimes by building communities. Living in the presence of family and friends, as well as within the contours of Puerto Rican communities, offered certain beneﬁts. While labor recruitment brought Puerto Ricans to a wide range of destinations, local conditions inﬂuenced where Puerto Rican communities took root, and where networks of family and friends would foster their growth.
Citizenship were denied the right to vote in Puerto Rico. S. S. economic interests. S. ” Puerto Rico’s economic dependence on the United States increased. S. investment in Puerto Rico and increase trade, duties would not be collected on Puerto Rico’s exports. S. occupation continued, as the coffee industry declined and the sugar industry expanded. The land devoted to sugar increased dramatically, from 72,146 to 145,433 cuerdas between 1899 and 1909 and to 237,758 cuerdas in 1929. Although the 500-acre restriction on corporate land holdings remained intact, it also remained unenforced.
Despite the increased magnitude of the migration and the newness of air travel, the key dynamics of migration paralleled those of the earlier periods. S. investors shifted their focus from agriculture to industrialization. Economic change was rapid, as agriculture declined in rural areas. Displaced workers migrated to Puerto Rico’s urban areas in search of manufacturing jobs, while others made their way to the States. Rather than confronting the underlying 26 Carmen Teresa Whalen FIGURE 1-3. By Plane: Puerto Rican Workers Arrive, Philadelphia, 1947.
The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives by Carmen Teresa Whalen, Víctor Vázquez-Hernández